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Monday, September 22, 2014

"Good food starts with a clean kitchen"

Methods to Sanitize

Regular chlorine bleach diluted in water is an easy-to-use germ killer.

Non-porous surface (tile, metal, or hard plastics)------Use 1 tablespoon bleach to 1 gallon of water. Leave wet. Let it air dry.

Porous surface (wood, rubber, or soft plastics) ------Use 3 tablespoons bleach to 1 gallon of water. Leave wet for two minutes. Rinse. Let it air dry.

Wash, rinse, and sanitize (counter tops, work tables, cutting boards, pots, pans, glasses, dishes, eating utensils) ALL food contact surfaces.

Foodborne Illness: How to Avoid This Spoiler

Here is a link to information about Foodborne Illness.

Glossary of Terms:
Contaminants- substances that make food unfit to use

Foodborne Illness- sickness caused by eating food that contains a harmful substance

Microorganisms- living creatures that are visible only with a microscope

Cross-Contamination- occurs when harmful bacteria spread from one food to another

Internal Temperature- is the temperature registered at the center of the thickest part of food

Freezer burn- is moisture loss when food is improperly packaged or stored in the freezer too long.


                                    FAT TOM

FOOD - High Protein
ACIDITY - 4.6 to 7.0 pH
TIME - Out of Refrigeration (2 hours below 90 degrees)
                                                 (1 hour above 90 degrees)
                                                 (4 hours harvest to table)
TEMPERATURE - 41 degrees to 140 degrees Fahrenheit -                                                Danger Zone
OXYGEN - anaerobic/aerobic
MOISTURE - more/water .85 level

Rules for Dishwashing

I. Organize table clearing
A. Save steps by using a tray to carry dishes from the table to the sink
II. Prepare dishes for washing
A. Soak pot and pans immediately after use
B. Use a rubber scraper to remove caked on food from dishes.
III. Washing Dishes
A. Use hot water (110 degrees Fahrenheit), as hot as your hand can stand.
B. Use enough suds to last until the last dish is washed.
C. Wash in the following order:
1. glassware
2. silverware
3. cups
4. plates
5. saucers
6. small dishes
7. serving dishes
8. baking dishes
9. pots and pans
D. Rinse with clear, hot water.
E. Air dry dishes whenever possible. Towel dry with lint-free towel. Return dry dishes
to storage location.
F. Wood handled utensils are not to be soaked in the dish water.
G. Sifter in not to be washed.
H. Hot utensils should cool before being placed into the dish water.
I. Heating units on electrical appliances should not be put into dish water.



For Any Type of Fire Extinguisher
Ways to extinguish a fire:
  • Remove the fuel source
  • Deny oxygen
  • Cool the fire's fuel before combustion
  • Disrupt the flame by using chemical extinguisher
Correct Way in Which to Use a Fire Extinguisher:
  1. Fires three feet (or less) in diameter may be manageable with a portable fire extinguisher
  2. Fires larger than three feet are a job for the fire department
  3. Fire extinguishers are marked with the type of fire they fight
PASS System should be used with the fire extinguisher
P = Pull the pin
A = Aim at the base of the fire
S = Squeeze
S = Sweep side to side, stand back at least six to eight feet

Safety First-Rules for the Food Lab


1.  Always pick up a knife by its handle.  To give a knife to another person, place it on the

     counter so the other person can pick it up safely.  Cut away from yourself and others.

2.  Transport knives pointed toward the floor.  If a knife starts to fall, do not try to catch it.

3.  Use dry, clean pot holders or oven mitts when cooking.   Pull out the oven rack when placing

     food in or removing food from a hot oven.

4.  Dull knives are dangerous to use.  Keep knives sharp so less pressure is needed.

5.  Report any fire or accident to the teacher immediately.

6.  Avoid loose clothing and long sleeves that could easily catch fire.   Wear closed-toed shoes.

7.  Tie back long hair.  Keep hair away from face and shoulders.

8.  Follow food safety and sanitation procedures to prevent food-borne illness.

9.  Wash knives one by one and separate them from the other dishes.  Do not soak in sudsy water.

10. Keep flammables such as paper, plastics, pot holders, aerosol sprays, and oils away from a

      hot burner.  Burning plastics give off a toxic smoke.

11.  Know where the fire extinguisher and fire blanket are stored and how to use them.

      Remember to” PASS” with the fire extinguisher and “Stop, Drop, and Roll” with the blanket.

12. Turn off range, both surface burners and oven, when finished cooking.

13.  Hot foods should be stirred with a wooden or heat resistant spoon.

14.  Do not allow handles to extend over the edge of the stove or another burner.  Tighten loose

       handles with a screwdriver, not a knife.

15.  Use a can opener that leaves a smooth edge.   Cut off lids completely and dispose of them safely.

16.  Lift the lid of a hot pan with steam directed away from yourself and others.

17.  Use a cutting board to protect counters and to prevent food from slipping.

18.  Purchase small appliances with the Underwriter’s Laboratories (UL) safety label.

19.  Check the small appliance manufacturer’s use and care book for any safety precautions.

20. Store knives in a separate drawer or slotted rack to prevent cuts.

21.  Do not reach across an empty hot surface burner.

22.  Follow the teacher’s instruction for fire drills.  Remove all foods from the burners or oven

       and turn off all appliances. 

23.  If glass should break, clean up the large pieces with a broom and dust pan.  Use a wet paper

       towel to clean up small pieces of glass. Dispose of broken glass separately from other trash.

24.  Keep cabinet doors and drawers closed.

25.  If a glass breaks in a filled sink, never reach in while there is water.  Drain water and use a cloth or

       towel to pick up the glass after water has drained.

26.  Keep appliances clean and free of grease.  Grease catches fire easily.

27.  When loading the dishwasher, place utensils with sharp points down.

28.  Do not stand on a wet floor when using electricity.  Dry hands prevent shocks.  Do not

       overload outlets.  When disconnecting a plug from an outlet, pull by the plug not the cord.

29.  Store cleaning products in the original containers.  Never mix products.  Use sprays in well-

       ventilated areas and pointed away from yourself and others.

30.  Settle differences through discussion.  Fighting, pushing, and horseplay are dangerous. 

Saturday, September 20, 2014


According to The America's Test Kitchen Cooking School Cookbook, there are 12 things to consider in order to become the best cook.  These steps will enhance your cooking skills when used.

1. Read the Recipe carefully
2. Follow Directions, at least the first time
3. Be Prepared
4. Start with Good Ingredients
5. Prepare Ingredients as Directed
6. Keep Substitutions to a Minimum
7. Used the Appropriately Sized Equipment
8. Preheat your Oven
9. Monitor the Dish as it Cooks
10. Taste the Dish before Serving
11. Learn from Your Mistakes
12. Enjoy Yourself

Ask questions in class to get more detailed information on these important 12 steps.  Read Chapter 22 of the textbook "Equipping the Kitchen" (pages 306-329), Chapter 24 "Using Recipes" (pages 343-353), and finally Chapter 25 "Preparation Techniques" (pages 355-365) to prepare yourself by learning the skills for the best cooking experiences.